For a long time, public and semipublic organizations have borrowed Human Resource Management (HRM) practices from the private sector to enhance employee performance. Numerous scholars argue, however, that business-like practices are less effective outside the private sector context because of sector-specific conditions. Based on the ability–motivation–opportunity model, we performed a three-level meta-analysis to investigate differences in effects of HRM practices on individual performance across sectors. Our study shows that significant differences exist between sectors, but the expectation that the effects of HRM practices are largest in the private sector and smallest in the public sector is not supported. More specifically, the differences between the public, semipublic, and private sector are not straightforward. In this respect, we encourage future scholars to further examine these differences.
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